The Gallipoli Campaign is characterised by countless deeds of heroism and endurance, in a campaign that was flawed from the very start and became a defeat for the Allies. It took place in an area smaller than Southampton amid appalling conditions, such as heat, flies, lack of water, equipment and proper sanitation. Later on, rain and a freak spell of sub-zero temperatures had to be endured to say nothing of the desperate close-quarter fighting throughout the campaign.
Some 559,000 Allied personnel were committed during the whole campaign, of whom 420,000 were British and Empire troops, 50,000 Australians and 13,000 New Zealanders and 80,000 French. The Allies had over 250,000 casualties, of whom over 58,000 died, including 12,000 French and French colonial, and 11,000 Australian and New Zealand troops. Approximately 196,000 were wounded or sick, including 25,000 from Australia and New Zealand. Just over 11,000 Allied troops have known graves on the Gallipoli peninsula. Casualties to Ottoman forces with some Germans, numbered in excess of 300,000 and over 87,000 died. There are few known Ottoman graves on the peninsula, but like the Allies, several memorials commemorate the missing.
Footnote: these figures are approximate, but based on the evidence to date. Gallipoli Association, January 2015.
The evacuation in December and early January 1916 was a masterly operation - one of the great feats of military history.
Summary Of The Major Battles & Events
- The Naval bombardment of the Straits Forts (19 February - 16 March)
- The Naval attempt to force the Straits (18 March)
- The Landings at Cape Helles and Anzac Cove (25 April)
- The First Battle of Krithia (28 April)
- The Turkish night counter-attack (2 May)
- The Second Battle of Krithia (6 May)
- The Third Battle of Krithia (4 June)
- The Battle of Gully Ravine (28 June)
- The Landings at Suvla Bay and the Anzac attack on Chunuk Bair (6 - 10 August)
- The Battle of Scimitar Hill and attack on Hill 60 (21 - 22 August)
- Evacuation of ANZAC and Suvla (19/20 December)
- Evacuation of Cape Helles (8/9 January 1916)
Below we have included a selection of maps from the British Official History of Gallipoli. You can view these by clicking on the relevant map links below.
Map or Series Date: Gallipoli, 1915-1916
Creator: Ordnance Survey/Historical Section [of the Committee of Imperial Defence] (Military Branch)
Description: out of copyright. Series of 6 maps showing Gallipoli
Source: University of Toronto